Department of Psychological Sciences Papers and Publications

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    Associations between teamwork and implementation outcomes in multidisciplinary cross-sector teams implementing a mental health screening and referral protocol
    (Springer Nature, 2023) McGuier, Elizabeth A.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Byrne, Kara A.; Campbell, Kristine A.; Keeshin, Brooks; Rothenberger, Scott D.; Weingart, Laurie R.; Salas, Eduardo; Kolko, David J.
    Teams play a central role in the implementation of new practices in settings providing team-based care. However, the implementation science literature has paid little attention to potentially important team-level constructs. Aspects of teamwork, including team interdependence, team functioning, and team performance, may affect implementation processes and outcomes. This cross-sectional study tests associations between teamwork and implementation antecedents and outcomes in a statewide initiative to implement a standardized mental health screening/referral protocol in Child Advocacy Centers (CACs).
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    Handoffs and the challenges to implementing teamwork training in the perioperative environment
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2023) Paquette, Shannon; Kilcullen, Molly; Hoffman, Olivia; Hernandez, Jessica; Mehta, Ankeeta; Salas, Eduardo; Greilich, Philip E.
    Perioperative handoffs are high-risk events for miscommunications and poor care coordination, which cause patient harm. Extensive research and several interventions have sought to overcome the challenges to perioperative handoff quality and safety, but few efforts have focused on teamwork training. Evidence shows that team training decreases surgical morbidity and mortality, and there remains a significant opportunity to implement teamwork training in the perioperative environment. Current perioperative handoff interventions face significant difficulty with adherence which raises concerns about the sustainability of their impact. In this perspective article, we explain why teamwork is critical to safe and reliable perioperative handoffs and discuss implementation challenges to the five core components of teamwork training programs in the perioperative environment. We outline evidence-based best practices imperative for training success and acknowledge the obstacles to implementing those best practices. Explicitly identifying and discussing these obstacles is critical to designing and implementing teamwork training programs fit for the perioperative environment. Teamwork training will equip providers with the foundational teamwork competencies needed to effectively participate in handoffs and utilize handoff interventions. This will improve team effectiveness, adherence to current perioperative handoff interventions, and ultimately, patient safety.
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    Improving teamwork in multidisciplinary cross-sector teams: Adaption and pilot testing of a team training for Child Advocacy Center teams
    (Elsevier, 2023) McGuier, Elizabeth A.; Feldman, Jamie; Bay, Mikele; Ascione, Sue; Tatum, Mary; Salas, Eduardo; Kolko, David J.
    Background Effective teamwork is critical to the mission of Child Advocacy Center (CAC) multidisciplinary teams. Team interventions designed to fit the unique cross-organizational context of CAC teams may improve teamwork in CACs. Methods A collaborative, community-engaged approach was used to adapt TeamSTEPPS, an evidence-based team training for healthcare, for CAC multidisciplinary teams. The adapted training was piloted with one team and evaluated using mixed methods. Team members completed pre-training (n = 26) and follow-up surveys (n = 22) and participated in qualitative interviews (n = 9). Results The adaptation process resulted in the creation of TeamTRACS (Team Training in Roles, Awareness, Communication, and Support). Participants rated TeamTRACS as highly acceptable, appropriate, feasible, relevant, and useful for CAC teams. They identified positive and negative aspects of the training, ideas for improvement, and future uses for TeamTRACS. Conclusions TeamTRACS is a feasible approach to team training in CACs, and team members find the content and skills relevant and useful. Additional research is needed to test the effectiveness of TeamTRACS and identify appropriate implementation strategies to support its use.
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    Team FIRST framework: Identifying core teamwork competencies critical to interprofessional healthcare curricula
    (Cambridge University Press, 2023) Greilich, Philip E.; Kilcullen, Molly; Paquette, Shannon; Lazzara, Elizabeth H.; Scielzo, Shannon; Hernandez, Jessica; Preble, Richard; Michael, Meghan; Sadighi, Mozhdeh; Tannenbaum, Scott; Phelps, Eleanor; Krumwiede, Kimberly Hoggatt; Sendelbach, Dorothy; Rege, Robert; Salas, Eduardo
    Interprofessional healthcare team function is critical to the effective delivery of patient care. Team members must possess teamwork competencies, as team function impacts patient, staff, team, and healthcare organizational outcomes. There is evidence that team training is beneficial; however, consensus on the optimal training content, methods, and evaluation is lacking. This manuscript will focus on training content. Team science and training research indicates that an effective team training program must be founded upon teamwork competencies. The Team FIRST framework asserts there are 10 teamwork competencies essential for healthcare providers: recognizing criticality of teamwork, creating a psychologically safe environment, structured communication, closed-loop communication, asking clarifying questions, sharing unique information, optimizing team mental models, mutual trust, mutual performance monitoring, and reflection/debriefing. The Team FIRST framework was conceptualized to instill these evidence-based teamwork competencies in healthcare professionals to improve interprofessional collaboration. This framework is founded in validated team science research and serves future efforts to develop and pilot educational strategies that educate healthcare workers on these competencies.
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    Aging and Burnout for Nurses in an Acute Care Setting: The First Wave of COVID-19
    (MDPI, 2023) Beier, Margaret E.; Cockerham, Mona; Branson, Sandy; Boss, Lisa
    We examined the relationship between age, coping, and burnout during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic with nurses in Texas (N = 376). Nurses were recruited through a professional association and snowball sampling methodology for the cross-sectional survey study. Framed in lifespan development theories, we expected that nurse age and experience would be positively correlated with positive coping strategies (e.g., getting emotional support from others) and negatively correlated with negative coping strategies (e.g., drinking and drug use). We also expected age to be negatively related to the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization facets of burnout and positively related to the personal accomplishment facet of burnout. Findings were largely supported in that age was positively associated with positive coping and personal accomplishment and age and experience were negatively correlated with negative coping and depersonalization. Age was not, however, associated with emotional exhaustion. Mediation models further suggest that coping explains some of the effect of age on burnout. A theoretical extension of lifespan development models into an extreme environment and practical implications for coping in these environments are discussed.
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    A position paper on researching braille in the cognitive sciences: decentering the sighted norm
    (Cambridge University Press, 2023) Englebretson, Robert; Holbrook, M. Cay; Fischer-Baum, Simon
    This article positions braille as a writing system worthy of study in its own right and on its own terms. We begin with a discussion of the role of braille in the lives of those who read and write it and a call for more attention to braille in the reading sciences. We then give an overview of the history and development of braille, focusing on its formal characteristics as a writing system, in order to acquaint sighted print readers with the basics of braille and to spark further interest among reading researchers. We then explore how print-centric assumptions and sight-centric motivations have potentially negative consequences, not only for braille users but also for the types of questions researchers think to pursue. We conclude with recommendations for conducting responsible and informed research about braille. We affirm that blindness is most equitably understood as but one of the many diverse ways humans experience the world. Researching braille literacy from an equity and diversity perspective provides positive, fruitful insights into perception and cognition, contributes to the typologically oriented work on the world’s writing systems, and contributes to equity by centering the perspectives and literacy of the people who read and write braille.
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    The Simon Effect Asymmetry for Left- and Right-Dominant Persons
    (Ubiquity Press, 2023) Proctor, Robert W.; Zhong, Qi; Chen, Jing
    When participants respond to a task-relevant stimulus attribute by pressing a left or right key with the respective index finger, reaction time is shorter if task-irrelevant left-right stimulus location corresponds to that of the response key than if it does not. For right-handers, this Simon effect is larger for right-located than left-located stimuli; for left-handers this Simon-effect asymmetry is reversed. A similar asymmetry has been found for right-footers pressing pedals with their feet. For analyses that separate stimulus- and response-location factors, these asymmetries appear as a main effect of response location, with responses being faster with the dominant effector. If the Simon-effect asymmetry is strictly a function of effector dominance, it should reverse for left-footers responding with their feet. In Experiment 1, left-dominant persons showed faster responses with the left than right hand but with the right than left foot, a finding consistent with prior research on tapping actions. Right-dominant persons also showed the right-foot asymmetry but, unexpectedly, not the typical asymmetry with hand responses. To evaluate whether hand-presses yield results distinct from finger-presses, in Experiment 2 participants performed the Simon task with finger-presses and hand-presses. The opposing asymmetries for right- and left-dominant persons were evident for both response modes. Our results are consistent with the view that the Simon effect asymmetry is primarily due to differences in effector efficiency, usually but not always favoring the dominant effector.
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    Does team orientation matter? A state-of-the-science review, meta-analysis, and multilevel framework
    (Wiley, 2023) Kilcullen, Molly; Bisbey, Tiffany M.; Rosen, Michael; Salas, Eduardo
    As teams are a foundational component of modern organizations, selection and training of employees to facilitate teamwork is of key importance. In this paper, we review and meta-analyze research on the construct of team orientation. We differentiate between organizational-, team-, and individual-level team orientation and discuss multilevel theory implications. A total of 39 articles comprising 210 effects were meta-analyzed. Results indicate that team orientation is important, particularly for effective teamwork and team-based outcomes. Specifically, at the overall level, we found significant and positive relationships with communication, coordination, cooperation, trust, shared mental models, backup behaviors, cohesion, innovation, satisfaction, leadership, and team performance. Team orientation was found to be negatively correlated with conflict. Interestingly, we found a negative relationship between team orientation and individual-level performance. We discuss the implications of these findings and make suggestions for future work to build upon these findings.
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    Post-traumatic stress disorder and hiring: The role of social media disclosures on stigma and hiring assessments of veterans
    (Wiley, 2023) Pu, Wenxi; Roth, Philip L.; Thatcher, Jason B.; Nittrouer, Christine L.; Hebl, Mikki
    A significant percentage of veterans suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Veterans are often directed to social media platforms to seek support during their transition to civilian life. However, social media platforms are increasingly used to aid in hiring decisions, and these platforms may make veterans’ PTSD more discoverable during the hiring process. Based on social identity theory and identity management theory, the integrated suspicion model, and the stigma literature, we conducted four studies that examine veterans’ PTSD disclosures on social media and the consequences in the hiring process. Study 1 suggests that 16%–34% of veterans included cues related to PTSD status on social media. Study 2, based on 290 upper-level business students, shows that veterans with PTSD were more stigmatized than veterans without PTSD, and stigmatization is associated with more suspicion and lower hiring-related ratings (of expected task performance, expected organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), expected counterproductive work behaviors (CWB), and intention to interview). Study 3, based on 431 working professionals with hiring experience, further supports relationships from Study 2. Study 4, based on 298 working professionals, identifies peril (i.e., perceptions regarding danger) as an additional mediator for the effects of PTSD on hiring-related ratings. In sum, we identify and explore the identity management conundrum that social media disclosure poses for veterans with PTSD in the hiring process and discuss potential remedies and avenues for future research.
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    White Matter Correlates of Domain-Specific Working Memory
    (MDPI, 2023) Horne, Autumn; Ding, Junhua; Schnur, Tatiana T.; Martin, Randi C.
    Prior evidence suggests domain-specific working memory (WM) buffers for maintaining phonological (i.e., speech sound) and semantic (i.e., meaning) information. The phonological WM buffer’s proposed location is in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG), whereas semantic WM has been related to the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and the angular gyrus (AG). However, less is known about the white matter correlates of phonological and semantic WM. We tested 45 individuals with left hemisphere brain damage on single word processing, phonological WM, and semantic WM tasks and obtained T1 and diffusion weighted neuroimaging. Virtual dissections were performed for each participants’ arcuate fasciculus (AF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), middle longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), and uncinate fasciculus (UF), which connect the proposed domain-specific WM buffers with perceptual or processing regions. The results showed that the left ILF, MLF, IFOF, and the direct segment of the AF were related to semantic WM performance. Phonological WM was related to both the left ILF and the MLF. This work informs our understanding of the white matter correlates of WM, especially semantic WM, which has not previously been investigated. In addition, this work helps to adjudicate between theories of verbal WM, providing some evidence for separate pathways supporting phonological and semantic WM.
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    Effects of task demands on tactile vigilance
    (Springer Nature, 2023) DeLucia, Patricia R.; Greenlee, Eric T.
    A performance decline during sustained monitoring of unpredictable and occasional signals, the vigilance decrement, has been studied mostly in the visual and auditory modalities, but a tactile vigilance decrement also has been observed and has been associated with high perceived workload, declines in sensitivity and task engagement, and increases in distress. The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether task demands affect the vigilance decrement in the tactile modality and whether the effects are similar to those observed in the auditory and visual modalities. Participants completed a 40-min vigil in which they monitored vibrotactile stimuli generated by a tactor and had to discriminate between durations of bursts of vibrations. Task demand was varied by including low and high event rates. Although correct detections decreased over time (vigilance decrement) and sensitivity was greater for the slower event rate, there was not an interaction between period of watch and event rate. There also were no differences in workload and stress between event rates. Results indicate that mean performance in tactile vigilance tasks is negatively impacted by increases in event rate, indicating that a typical source of task demand known to affect visual and auditory vigilance also affects tactile vigilance. Results could be explained by either an underload or overload theory of the vigilance decrement.
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    Factors That Affect Drivers' Perception of Closing and an Immediate Hazard
    (Sage, 2023) Weaver, Bradley W.; DeLucia, Patricia R.; Jupe, Jason
    Objective: To measure the looming threshold for when drivers perceive closing and an immediate hazard and determine what factors affect these thresholds. Background: Rear-end collisions are a common type of crash. One key issue is determining when drivers first perceive they need to react. The looming threshold for closing and an immediate hazard are critical perceptual thresholds that reflect when drivers perceive they need to react. Method: Two driving simulator experiments examined whether engaging in a cell phone conversation and whether the complexity of the roadway environment affect these thresholds for the perception of closing and immediate hazard. Half of the participants engaged in a cognitive task, the last letter task, to emulate a cell phone conversation, and all participants experienced both simple and complex roadway environments. Results: Drivers perceived an immediate hazard later when engaged in a cell phone conversation than when not engaged in a conversation but only when the driving task was relatively less demanding (e.g., simple roadway, slow closing velocity). Compared to simple scenes, drivers perceived closing and an immediate hazard later for complex scenes but only when closing velocity was 30 mph (48.28 km/h) or greater. Conclusion: Cell phone conversation can affect when drivers perceive an immediate hazard when the roadway is less demanding. Roadway complexity can affect when drivers perceive closing and an immediate hazard when closing velocity is high. Application: Results can aid accident analysis cases and the design of driving automation systems by suggesting when a typical driver would respond.
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    “Small” Effects, Big Problems
    (Oxford University Press, 2022) Davenport, Meghan K.; Ruffin, Makai A.; Oxendahl, Timothy A.; McSpedon, Megan R.; Beier, Margaret E.
    Murphy and DeNisi (2021) call on researchers to “examine the cumulative effects of biases in the evaluations of and decisions regarding older workers,” acknowledging that “even if age differences at any one point in time (e.g., this year’s salary raise) are small, consistent differences in the treatment of older vs. younger workers could lead to large cumulative effects” (Murphy and DeNisi, 2021, p. 4). In this commentary, we aim to (a) probe what should constitute a small effect in the context of age stereotypes at work and (b) argue that there is evidence that cumulative effects of even small age-related biases impact the lives of older workers.
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    Topical Review: Impact of Central Vision Loss on Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance while Walking
    (Wolters Kluwer, 2022) Cloutier, Melissa; DeLucia, Patricia R.
    SIGNIFICANCE : Individuals with central vision loss are at higher risk of injury when walking and thus may limit trips outside the home. Understanding the mobility challenges associated with central vision loss (CVL) can lead to more effective interventions. A systematic literature review focusing on mobility in CVL was conducted. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method, 2424 articles were identified in 4 databases (PsycINFO, APA PsycArticles, PubMed, and Web of Science). To be included within this review, the study methodology needed to be related to the three components of walking: (1) navigation, defined as the ability to reach a target destination; (2) obstacle avoidance, defined as the ability to avoid collisions with obstacles located at various heights and directions; and (3) street crossing, defined as the ability to both navigate a path and avoid collisions in a traffic environment. The methodology also needed to be empirical. Case studies, unstructured observational studies, studies based on self-report, research proposals, and existing systematic reviews were excluded. Titles, abstracts, and full text of identified articles were screened, yielding 26 articles included in the review. Results showed that, in many tasks, individuals with CVL can accomplish a level of performance comparable with individuals with normal vision. Differences between normal and impaired vision were due to either age or how the groups completed the task. For example, individuals with CVL could cross a street successfully but did so less safely (i.e., smaller safety margins) than individuals with normal vision. To identify new interventions for CVL, future research should focus on the differences in the mechanisms underlying mobility between individuals with normal and impaired vision rather than solely on performance differences.
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    Lexical markers of cognitive reappraisal, bereavement, and proinflammatory cytokine production
    (American Psychological Association, 2023) Shahane, Anoushka D.; Brown, Ryan L.; Denny, Bryan T.; Fagundes, Christopher P.
    Objective: The loss of a spouse is considered one of the most significant life change-related stressors. Bereaved spouses have significantly increased risk of chronic inflammation, and ultimately greater morbidity and mortality. High levels of proinflammatory cytokines are related to negative health outcomes. In bereavement, the ability to successfully regulate emotion is a vital skill for healthy coping and may represent a key psychological mechanism accounting for varying degrees of resilience. Psychological distancing is a frequently adaptive emotion regulation strategy in which an individual appraises a negative situation by taking a step back and distancing oneself, and coolly evaluates what is happening. The objective of the present work was to investigate whether psychological distancing, implemented implicitly via natural language use (i.e., linguistic distancing [LD]), is related to inflammation and bereavement-related health indicators. Method: Participants (N = 144) underwent a blood draw for the inflammation assay, completed questionnaire measures evaluating grief symptoms and health, and completed an oral task describing their relationship with their deceased spouse, which was used for the lexical analyses. Results: We found that LD was significantly associated with a panel of a priori proinflammatory stimulated cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-2), bereavement-related health indices, and the relationship between grief symptoms and inflammation varied depending on the participants’ implementation of LD. Conclusions: LD may have a buffering effect for this vulnerable population. This work elucidates novel dependencies among language, emotion, and health. This work identifies resilience factors and probes the translational value of LD.
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    What's age got to do with it? A primer and review of the workplace aging literature
    (Wiley, 2022) Beier, Margaret E.; Kanfer, Ruth; Kooij, Dorien T.A.M.; Truxillo, Donald M.
    As populations in the United States and around the world continue to age, it has become increasingly important to understand how organizations can create working conditions that attract, support, and retain workers across the lifespan. In this paper, we provide a primer on current theory and research on age in the workplace. We briefly describe lifespan theories that have guided recent advances in the field, discuss the implications of these theories for an aging workforce, and provide an overview of current research streams that address the work and nonwork factors affecting performance, well-being, and workforce participation among mature workers. Based on this review, we provide recommendations for future research and practice.
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    A lifespan development perspective and meta-analysis on the relationship between age and organizational training
    (Wiley, 2022) Davenport, Meghan K.; Young, Carmen K.; Kim, Michelle H.; Gilberto, Jacqueline M.; Beier, Margaret E.
    The confluence of the aging population and economic conditions that require working longer necessitate a focus on how to best train and develop older workers. We report a meta-analysis of the age and training relationship that examines training outcomes and moderators with 60 independent samples (total N = 10,003). Framed within the lifespan development perspective, we expected and found that older trainees perform worse (ρ = −.14, k = 34, N = 5642; δ = 1.08, k = 21, N = 1242) and take more time (ρ = .19, k = 15, N = 2780; δ = 1.25, k = 12, N = 664) in training relative to younger trainees. Further, age was negatively related to post-training self-efficacy (ρ = −.08, k = 10, N = 4631), but not related to trainee reactions. Moderator analyses provided mixed support that training alone is related to increased mastery of skills and knowledge. No support was found for the moderating effects of pacing or instructional approach. We call for future research examining the interactive effects of training design on older worker outcomes in ways that capitalize on age-related growth, compensate for decline, and consider the strategies workers use to mitigate the effect of age-related losses.
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    How to be an inclusive leader for gender-diverse teams
    (Elsevier, 2022) Santos, Manuela; Luna, Miguel; Reyes, Denise L.; Traylor, Allison; Lacerenza, Christina N.; Salas, Eduardo
    Gender inequity is globally present in the labor force and advocating for gender equality is not merely a fairness issue, but a benefit for organizations. In this paper, we identify common challenges for gender-diverse teams (i.e., turnover, discrimination, communication issues, conflict between team members, and low team cohesion). We also discuss the importance of inclusive leadership to overcome these challenges. Correspondingly, we provide practical actions for inclusive leaders to implement on their teams to address issues regarding diversity, and subsequently leverage its benefits.
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    Insights From the Virtual Team Science: Rapid Deployment During COVID-19
    (Sage, 2022) Kilcullen, Molly; Feitosa, Jennifer; Salas, Eduardo
    Objective: To provide insights for organizations that must rapidly deploy teams to remote work. Background: Modern situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, are rapidly accelerating the need for organizations to move employee teams to virtual environments, sometimes with little to no opportunities to prepare for the transition. It is likely that organizations will continually have to adapt to evolving conditions in the future. Method: This review synthesizes the literature from several sources on best practices, lessons learned, and strategies for virtual teams. Information from each article deemed relevant was then extracted and de-identified. Over 64 best practices were independently and blindly coded for relevancy for the swift deployment of virtual teams. Results: As a result of this review, tips for virtual teams undergoing rapid transition to remote work were developed. These tips are organized at the organization, team, and individual levels. They are further categorized under six overarching themes: norm setting, performance monitoring, leadership, supportive mechanisms, communication, and flexibility. Conclusion: There is a significant deficit in the literature for best practices for virtual teams for the purposes of rapid deployment, leaving it to organizations to subjectively determine what advice to adhere to. This manuscript synthesizes relevant practices and provides insights into effective virtual team rapid deployment.
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    Effect of motorcycle lighting configurations on drivers’ perceptions of closing during nighttime driving
    (Elsevier, 2022) Weaver, Bradley W.; DeLucia, Patricia R.
    Objective: The aims were to better understand how drivers perceive an approaching set of motorcycle headlights during nighttime driving and to determine whether alternative motorcycle headlight configurations improve drivers’ perceptual judgments of closing for an oncoming motorcycle. Background: Motorcyclists account for a disproportionate number of roadway fatalities, especially at night. One potential cause of this is drivers’ misjudgments of a motorcycle’s approach. Method: The first experiment examined whether drivers were more sensitive to horizontal or vertical optical expansion and whether drivers could integrate these two dimensions to achieve a lower looming threshold. A second experiment built on these results to test whether alternative headlight configurations that maximized size were better than other motorcycle headlight configurations and a car’s headlights. In both experiments, participants were instructed to press a button to indicate when they first perceived an oncoming vehicle to be closing under nighttime driving conditions. Results: Headlight orientation did not affect when drivers perceived closing, and drivers were not able to integrate optical expansion from multiple dimensions in a way that achieves a lower looming threshold. However, the alternative motorcycle headlight configurations that accentuated the full extent of a motorcycle’s size resulted in drivers perceiving closing sooner than other motorcycle headlight configurations but not sooner than a car. Conclusion: Drivers perceive closing sooner for larger headlight configurations except when the headlight configurations are relatively small, in which case the effect of headlight size is attenuated. Application: Drivers’ perceptual judgments of motorcycles may improve when motorcycles have headlights that span its full height.