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ItemThe Family Level Assessment of Screen Use–Mobile Approach: Development of an Approach to Measure Children’s Mobile Device Use(JMIR, 2022) Perez, Oriana; Vadathya, Anil Kumar; Beltran, Alicia; Barnett, R. Matthew; Hindera, Olivia; Garza, Tatyana; Musaad, Salma M.; Baranowski, Tom; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Mendoza, Jason A.; Sabharwal, Ashutosh; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; O'Connor, Teresia M.Background: There is a strong association between increased mobile device use and worse dietary habits, worse sleep outcomes, and poor academic performance in children. Self-report or parent-proxy report of children’s screen time has been the most common method of measuring screen time, which may be imprecise or biased. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring the screen time of children on mobile devices using the Family Level Assessment of Screen Use (FLASH)–mobile approach, an innovative method that leverages the existing features of the Android platform. Methods: This pilot study consisted of 2 laboratory-based observational feasibility studies and 2 home-based feasibility studies in the United States. A total of 48 parent-child dyads consisting of a parent and child aged 6 to 11 years participated in the pilot study. The children had to have their own or shared Android device. The laboratory-based studies included a standardized series of tasks while using the mobile device or watching television, which were video recorded. Video recordings were coded by staff for a gold standard comparison. The home-based studies instructed the parent-child dyads to use their mobile device as they typically use it over 3 days. Parents received a copy of the use logs at the end of the study and completed an exit interview in which they were asked to review their logs and share their perceptions and suggestions for the improvement of the FLASH-mobile approach. Results: The final version of the FLASH-mobile approach resulted in user identification compliance rates of >90% for smartphones and >80% for tablets. For laboratory-based studies, a mean agreement of 73.6% (SD 16.15%) was achieved compared with the gold standard (human coding of video recordings) in capturing the target child’s mobile use. Qualitative feedback from parents and children revealed that parents found the FLASH-mobile approach useful for tracking how much time their child spends using the mobile device as well as tracking the apps they used. Some parents revealed concerns over privacy and provided suggestions for improving the FLASH-mobile approach. Conclusions: The FLASH-mobile approach offers an important new research approach to measure children’s use of mobile devices more accurately across several days, even when the child shares the device with other family members. With additional enhancement and validation studies, this approach can significantly advance the measurement of mobile device use among young children. ItemFoucault and Brown: Disciplinary Intersections(Copenhagen Business School, 2022) Clements, Niki KasumiFrom the 1981 “Sexuality and Solitude” to the 1982 “Le combat de la chasteté” to the 1984 History of Sexuality, Volume 2, Michel Foucault’s published works have long recognized the influence of the historian of late antiquity, Peter Brown. With the 2018 publication of Foucault’s draft of Les Aveux de la chair (Confessions of the Flesh) bearing no mention of Brown, the depth of this influence requires further elaboration. Despite Brown not appearing in the “Index of Modern Authors,” Confessions of the Flesh reflects Foucault’s debt to Brown for his readings of Augustine of Hippo and his conceptualizations of sexuality and subjectivity. Analyzing archival evidence alongside biographical narratives helps us better understand Brown’s vital influence as Foucault was shifting his History of Sexuality project, his archival practices, and his genealogy of subjectivity. Appreciating the textual and conceptual engagement between Foucault and Brown thus illuminates not only Confessions of the Flesh as Volume 4 in the History of Sexuality series but also the conceptual and methodological developments of both scholars in their disciplinary intersections. ItemStrongly correlated electron systems: Quantum criticality, unconventional superconductivity, and topology(2022-04-22) Hu, Haoyu; Si, QimiaoIn many-electron systems, strong correlations lead to a rich variety of quantum phases and exotic phenomena. In this thesis, we investigate several such effects, including quantum criticality, unconventional superconductivity, and topology. Three general directions of investigation have been pursued. The first direction focuses on the Kondo-destruction quantum critical point of heavy-fermion metals, a prototype class of systems with strong correlations. We demonstrate non-trivial Kondo entanglement and dynamical scaling in the spin susceptibility. In addition, we show that robust superconductivity develops out of the quantum critical normal state that features a large-to-small Fermi-surface transformation. The second direction of research explores the interplay between electron correlations and topology. We find that a charge-spin intertwined phase is stabilized by the cooperation of topology and correlations. Furthermore, we analyze topological phases in the non-Fermi liquid context. Via interacting Green’s function, we determine the constraint of space-group symmetry on correlated topology and identify a gapless topological state without free-electron counterpart. Finally, we investigate the correlation effect in different multiorbital systems, including iron-based superconductors, UTe2, and moir´e graphene. ItemHardware-Software Co-Design for Optimizing MPI Programs in Data Center Network(2021-12-03) Rahbar, Afsaneh; Ng, T.S. EugeneHigh Performance Computing (HPC) systems are critical. A single server/processor cannot handle the heavy computation needs of today’s applications. HPC systems are built out of increasing numbers of processors to solve these computation-intensive problems. Communication between machines is essential. These applications may consist of thousands of processes spread across machines coordinating to solve a specific large-scale problem. The critical component of these systems is the network that connects the servers and makes this collaboration between servers possible. The performance of the network has a significant impact on the application performance. To better understand the main issues and improve the communication performance in this thesis, we investigate data center networks and provide a general overview and analysis of the literature covering various research areas, including data center network architectures, network protocols for data center networks, and state-of-the-art communication frameworks. We argue that many of the challenges faced by HPC applications in the communication phase can be addressed by augmenting the existing physical network architecture with low-cost optical technologies. However, we observe that integrating physical network/ hardware-based solutions alone would not be adoptable by HPC applications users. It requires some level of software-level application adaptations to the physical network before benefiting from the new characteristics of the network. Without a proper application to network interaction, the network cannot automatically adapt to the application’s needs and vice versa. Our goal is to explore co-designing hardware and software solutions that optimize the data center network for MPI-based HPC programs. We propose a static source code analysis solution to identify the different communication patterns and requirements of applications and design algorithms that find the optimal network placement of the tasks to reduce the number of cross-rack communications to the least possible. We implement a prototype of our solution that automates learning the application communication characteristics, application to network interaction, and network to application adaptation (reconfiguring the network). We evaluate our tool and demonstrate the high potential of hardware-software co-design for optimizing HPC programs in the data center network. ItemThe Role of the Familiar Spirit in the Glanville-Webster Witchcraft Debate(Rice University, 2021) Lee, Jason; Kidd, Julia ItemShakespeare Passages Recommendation System(Rice University) Mulligan, John; Center for Research ComputingThis repository holds the code for an intertextual recommendation system that links passages in the Shakespearean dramatic corpus (as digitized by Folger) to one another based entirely on scholarly citations/quotations (as identified by JSTOR Labs in their collection of digitized works, and made available in what was called their Matchmaker API). ItemDigital Scholarship Services Summer 2021 Newsletter(Rice University, 2021-06-08) Fondren Library Digital Scholarship ServicesIn this newsletter, Fondren Library's Digital Scholarship Services highlight services, tools and collections of interest to the Rice community. It also shares staff news and spotlight recent collaborations. Note: In an effort to preserve the original newsletter content, URLs have been replaced with Perma.cc links, which provide an archived snapshot of the webpage at the time the newsletter was created. ItemEcologies of Innovation: Economy, Empire, and Environment in Eighteenth-Century British Literature(2021-04-29) MacDonnell, Kevin T.; Campana, Joseph; Ellenzweig, Sarah“Ecologies of Innovation: Economy, Empire, and Environment in Eighteenth-Century British Literature” examines how eighteenth-century literature shaped the reception and articulation of innovative modes of production in the Atlantic world. “Innovation” is a concept that is now as ubiquitous as it is elusive. And yet, attending to the cultural histories of innovation is essential to understanding our moment, from the conceptual foundations of global capitalism to the environmental legacies of colonialism. This project explores literary encounters with innovations in mining, shipping, plantation agriculture, and manufacturing that not only advanced Britain’s imperial ascendancy but also registered as forms of capitalist enterprise legible on a planetary scale. From Daniel Defoe, to Olaudah Equiano, to James Grainger, British writers negotiated the conventions of eighteenth-century literary culture with the innovations that were enabling capital accumulation and territorial expansion. By analyzing the interplay of literary and technical discourse in eighteenth-century Britain, I recast paradigmatic modes of the period’s literary culture—the novel, aesthetic philosophy, the slave narrative, and the georgic—as means of turning toward and responding to innovation. In the end, “Ecologies of Innovation” traces a prehistory of our troubled relationship with innovation, illustrating how and to what extent literature and language shaped the early expression of colonial capitalism. ItemDigital Scholarship Services Spring 2021 Newsletter(Rice University, 2021-02-25) Fondren Library Digital Scholarship ServicesIn this newsletter, Fondren Library's Digital Scholarship Services highlight services, tools and collections of interest to the Rice community. It also shares staff news and spotlight recent collaborations. Note: In an effort to preserve the original newsletter content, URLs have been replaced with Perma.cc links, which provide an archived snapshot of the webpage at the time the newsletter was created. ItemHerschel Observatory Sweep Data and Stellarium Plugin Database(Rice University, 2021) Mulligan, John; Center for Research ComputingThis zip file relates to the deep-space astronomical sweeps of Caroline and William Herschel, conducted in Slough, England. It was hand-transcribed from records at the Royal Astronomical Society, and could be improved upon: corrections, expansions to include missing records or John Herschel's sweeps, for instance. It contains: the transcriptions of the parameters for 1,335 sweeps, in csv format -- python scripts for -- importing this csv data into an sqlite database, useful for tracking simulations and coordinating parallel processes -- transforming this csv file into an .ini file readable by: -- a plugin written in QT5 and C++ for Stellarium 0.90, which -- ingests this .ini file -- renders sweeps projected on the night sky -- renders real-time simulations of the sweep as seen by the observer (William) -- a readme file fully documenting the work as well as installation instructions ItemDigital Scholarship Services Fall 2020 Newsletter(Rice University, 2020-10-13) Fondren Library Digital Scholarship ServicesIn this newsletter, Fondren Library's Digital Scholarship Services highlight services, tools and collections of interest to the Rice community. It also shares staff news and spotlight recent collaborations. Note: In an effort to preserve the original newsletter content, URLs have been replaced with Perma.cc links, which provide an archived snapshot of the webpage at the time the newsletter was created. ItemTheophanic Reasoning: Science, Secrets, and the Stars from Spenser to Milton(2020-10-08) McAdams, Alexander Lowe; Campana, Joseph; Ellenzweig, SarahTheophanic Reasoning: Science, Secrets, and the Stars from Spenser to Milton posits that early modern English literary figures use the concept of theophany, the material or transferred presence of God in the terrestrial world, to respond to the vacuum of doubt instigated after Nicolaus Copernicus published his astronomical observations in 1543. From heretical theories of the world-soul expressed through pagan Roman myth in Spenserian epic and Shakespearean drama, to the deeply spiritual and lively negotiation between man and the divine in Francis Bacon’s scientific writings and John Milton’s Paradise Lost, Theophanic Reasoning argues that Protestant writers use theophany as a cipher to reason, or rationalize, the anxiety accompanying the scientific method, which threatened to eliminate God the Maker from the universe entirely. As a literary history of religion and science, Theophanic Reasoning makes a critical intervention between religious studies and the history of science. In doing so, it argues that seventeenth-century literature acts as the gravitational force that pulls these now-disparate fields into cooperating orbits. Whereas current literary scholarship focuses on the history of science or the “religious turn” as separately evolving critical conversations, this dissertation returns to the original historical milieu of the seventeenth century by forging careful analysis of historical materials and Latin philosophical texts with recent research in Christian mystical theology and the esoteric branch of the history of science discipline. Thus, Theophanic Reasoning addresses a crucial gap in scholarship between literature and religion and literature and the long history of science. At the heart of this project is the early modern brokering between the ontological status of truth and lies, belief and proof. It argues that Protestant believers used verifiable proof of God’s presence—in the cosmos, in the atmosphere, on the human body—to explain and further buoy scientific experiment and reality. It seeks to answer the question of what happens to literature when two giant cultural shifts, the Protestant Reformation and the Cosmological Revolution, threaten to rend the very fabric of religious and intellectual life in England. With particular attention to early modern understandings of facticity and sensory experience, Theophanic Reasoning provides a religio-scientific reading practice to redefine the secularizing impulse of contemporary literary criticism. In turn, this dissertation seeks to restore the divine to its place in early modern conceptions of science, secrets, and the stars. ItemCritical Theory, Normativity, and Catastrophe: A Critique of Amy Allen’s Metanormative Contextualism(Rice University, 2020-05) Rehman, Bilal; Crowell, StevenCritical theory is an approach to philosophical and cultural analysis that focuses on oppression and liberation. In this essay, I consider the prospect of moral-political progress in critical theory, focusing primarily on Amy Allen’s position of metanormative contextualism as described in her 2016 work, "The End of Progress." I first consider Allen’s arguments against Jurgen Habermas' theory of communicative action, and then explore how metanormative contextualism is rooted in the thought of Theodor Adorno and Michel Foucault. Lastly, by showing how postcolonial studies reminds us of the deeply political stakes of critical theory, I argue that ideas about moral-political progress can be grounded in the urgent need to “avoid catastrophe.” ItemDigital Scholarship Services Summer 2019 Newsletter(Rice University, 2019-07-10) Fondren Library Digital Scholarship ServicesIn this newsletter, Fondren Library's Digital Scholarship Services highlight services, tools and collections of interest to the Rice community. It also shares staff news and spotlight recent collaborations. ItemDigital Scholarship Services Fall 2019 Newsletter(Rice University, 2019-09-26) Fondren Library Digital Scholarship ServicesIn this newsletter, Fondren Library's Digital Scholarship Services highlight services, tools and collections of interest to the Rice community. It also shares staff news and spotlight recent collaborations. ItemDigital Scholarship Services Spring 2020 Newsletter(Rice University, 2020-02-20) Fondren Library Digital Scholarship ServicesIn this newsletter, Fondren Library's Digital Scholarship Services highlight services, tools and collections of interest to the Rice community. It also shares staff news and spotlight recent collaborations. ItemDigital Scholarship Services Summer 2020 Newsletter(Rice University, 2020-06-11) Fondren Library Digital Scholarship Services ItemAnhydrosugars as tracers of fire air quality effects, carbon cycling and paleoclimate(2020-04-24) Suciu, Loredana G; Masiello, Caroline A; Griffin, Robert JWild and prescribed fires are important sources of a broad suite of organic compounds collectively termed pyrogenic carbon (PyC). Most PyC compounds have additional sources beyond fire, adding uncertainty to their use as tracers. However, members of the anhydrosugar family of isomeric compounds - levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan – are generated exclusively by the pyrolysis and combustion of cellulose and hemicellulose. Although anhydrosugars are some of the only unique organic markers for fire, their use as tracers in atmospheric, marine, and terrestrial systems is challenging because there is no clear theoretical framework to deal with their reactivity and phase partitioning. The atmospheric science community has made the first approximation that they are unreactive on timescales of interest. This assumption is problematic, because there is ample evidence of anhydrosugar reactivity on short timescales. On the other hand, the terrestrial and marine science communities have not yet seen wide use of anhydrosugars as tracers because our understanding of their biogeochemistry and transport through the Earth system is poorly constrained. Chapter 2 of this thesis reviews evidence for anhydrosugar production, degradation and detection in various environments and use this information to develop a framework for uses of anhydrosugars in research on PyC and organic matter in the Earth system. Anhydrosugars are chemically reactive in all phases (gaseous, aqueous and particulate), molecularly diffusive in semisolid matter, semivolatile, water-soluble, and biodegradable. Their chemical composition also suggests that they sorb to soil mineral surfaces. Together, these characteristics mean that anhydrosugars are not conservative tracers. While these traits have historically been perceived as drawbacks, here I argue that they present opportunities for new research avenues, including tracking organic matter transport and degradation in multiple environments. Chapter 3 of this thesis provides insights on the model development and simulations of the atmospheric degradation of the most abundant anhydrosugar emitted from biomass burning - levoglucosan (LEV) - and its effects on the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and other gases, using a zero-dimensional (0-D) modeling framework. Existing chemical mechanisms (homogeneous gas-phase chemistry and heterogeneous chemistry) were updated to include the chemical degradation of LEV and its intermediary degradation products in both phases (gas and aerosol). In addition, the gas-particle partitioning mechanism was added to the model to account for the effect of evaporation and condensation on the concentrations of LEV and its degradation products. Comparison of simulation results with measurements from various chamber experiments show that the degradation time scale of LEV varied by phase, 1.5-3.5 days (gas-phase) and 8-21 hours (aerosol-phase); these relatively short time scales suggest that most of the initial LEV concentration can be lost chemically or deposited locally before being transported regionally. Estimated secondary organic aerosol SOA yields (5-32%) reveal that conversion of LEV to secondary products is significant and occurs rapidly in the studied scenarios. The chemical degradation of LEV has effects on other gases, such as increasing the concentrations of radicals and total reactive nitrogen. Decreases of nitrogen oxides (NOx) appear to drive a more rapid increase in ozone (O3) compared to volatile organic compounds (VOC) levels. Future model evaluations and subsequent implementation of the 0-D multiphase LEV chemistry (extended to include its isomers) in CTMs will allow to model both regional transport and deposition of anhydrosugars and thus better assess their atmospheric implications and use as tracers. Another application of anhydrosugars would be to trace regional air transported to highly polluted urban areas, such as the Houston area. Vegetation fires occurring outside this region contribute emissions of O3 precursors, such as VOC and NOx. However, in the Houston area, there are multiple sources of such emissions (industrial activity, vehicle exhaust, etc.), and mixing with those sources challenges the quantification of regional contributions to locally measured concentrations. This is important because air pollution control measures impact the industrial activity in the area. While anhydrosugars have not been used in this study to help constrain regional background O3 and NOx, they open an unexplored pathway for future studies that can build on the additional work presented in Chapter 4 of this thesis, such as the estimation of regional background O3 and NOx using statistical analysis of O3, NOx and meteorology measured in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) region. This study used four different approaches based on principal component analysis (PCA). Three of these approaches consist of independent PCA on both O3 and NOx for both 1-h and 8-h levels to compare the results with previous studies and to highlight the effect of both temporal and spatial scales. In the fourth approach, O3, NOx and meteorology were co-varied. Results show that the estimation of regional background O3 has less inherent uncertainty when it was constrained by NOx and meteorology, yielding a statistically significant temporal trend of -0.68 ± 0.27 ppb y-1. Likewise, the estimation of regional background NOx trend constrained by O3 and meteorology was -0.04 ± 0.02 ppb y-1 (upper bound) and -0.03 ± 0.01 ppb y-1 (lower bound). The best estimates of 17-y average of season-scale background O3 and NOx were 46.72 ± 2.08 ppb and 6.80 ± 0.13 ppb (upper bound) or 4.45 ± 0.08 ppb (lower bound), respectively. Average background O3 is consistent with previous studies and between the approaches used in this study, although the approaches based on 8-h averages likely overestimate background O3 compared to the hourly median approach by 7-9 ppb. Similarly, the upper bound of average background NOx is consistent between approaches in this study but overestimated compared to the hourly approach by 1 ppb, on average. The study likely overestimates the upper bound background NOx due to instrument overdetection of NOx and the 8-h averaging of NOx and meteorology coinciding with maximum daily eight hours average O3. Regional background O3 and NOx in the HGB region both have declined over the past two decades. This decline became steadier after 2007, overlapping with the effects of controlling precursor emissions and a prevailing southeasterly-southerly flow. ItemProprietary Information Disclosure and Corporate Financing(2020-04-20) Zufarov, Rustam; Sivaramakrishnan, ShivaAccounting theory provides considerable insight into corporate disclosures practices and when managers might voluntarily disclose proprietary information. Yet, empirical evidence concerning when firms choose to credibly disclose such information is sparse. It is challenging in general to assess the proprietary information content of corporate disclosures because (i) firms can disseminate information via many different channels, and (ii) credibility of such disclosures is a serious concern. I propose a methodology that addresses these issues, and test the hypothesis that firms disclose more proprietary information ahead of raising equity capital. Specifically, I measure the extent of proprietary information these firms disclose by the magnitude of the association between a private information-based proxy and stock returns prior to equity offerings. To establish a causal link between equity financing and disclosures, I use a difference-in-differences design around the Securities Offering Reform of 2005 that reduced litigation risks associated with disclosures and relaxed restrictions on forward-looking disclosures. I find that equity-issuing firms disclose more than twice as much proprietary information as non-issuing control firms. This result is robust after controlling for any leakage of private information from insider trading and from analysts' information gathering activities. My findings also suggest that larger equity issuers experience 10 to 23 percent greater drop in underpricing relative to smaller equity issuers in the post-Reform period. Finally, by examining a broad sample of firms issuing equity, debt or relying on internal funds, I find that financing choice shapes firms' proprietary information disclosures. It is also possible that proprietary cost considerations overwhelm these capital market benefits for some firms, inhibiting them from divulging sensitive private information. These firms would have a natural incentive to seek financing via other avenues. Indeed, I find that firms with higher proprietary cost concerns are more likely to raise equity capital via private placements relative to public offerings. Taken together, these results suggest that corporate disclosure policies and financing decisions are interlinked in a significant way. ItemOpen Secret: Henry Corbin, Elliot Wolfson, and the Mystical Poetics of Deification(2020-03-10) Perron, Gregory; Kripal, Jeffrey J.This dissertation seeks to answer two fundamental questions. First, what is theosis or deification? And second, given that mystics in the three Abrahamic faiths have written experientially of deification, what might be some of the phenomenological and anthropological lessons that we can learn today from their insights into the nature of reality and from those of the scholars who study them? To answer these questions, a working definition of theosis or deification from the Christian tradition is offered that is then refracted through the lens of what is essentially a history of religions or reflexively comparative approach to a deep reading of the same theme in some representative texts of two major authors in the modern study of Islamic and Jewish mysticism, namely, Henry Corbin and Elliot Wolfson, respectively. This exploration is done in the service of gaining greater insight into the phenomenological and anthropological significance of the specific mystical category of deification via the “academic esotericism” (to borrow Jeffrey Kripal’s designation) of these two authors. The goal of undertaking such a dialogical study of each author’s treatment of deification is to journey toward a more mystical, poetic, and, hence, constructive understanding of what it means to be human. The fundamental argument of the dissertation is that, when viewed in the dialogical light of Corbin’s and Wolfson’s esoteric works, deification can be seen to be pointing to a relatively common cross-cultural mystical experience that bears witness to the essential and paradoxical oneness of humanity and divinity.