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ItemCoupled topological flat and wide bands: Quasiparticle formation and destruction(AAAS, 2023) Hu, Haoyu; Si, QimiaoFlat bands amplify correlation effects and are of extensive current interest. They provide a platform to explore both topology in correlated settings and correlation physics enriched by topology. Recent experiments in correlated kagome metals have found evidence for strange-metal behavior. A major theoretical challenge is to study the effect of local Coulomb repulsion when the band topology obstructs a real-space description. In a variant to the kagome lattice, we identify an orbital-selective Mott transition in any system of coupled topological flat and wide bands. This was made possible by the construction of exponentially localized and Kramers-doublet Wannier functions, which, in turn, leads to an effective Kondo-lattice description. Our findings show how quasiparticles are formed in such coupled topological flat-wide band systems and, equally important, how they are destroyed. Our work provides a conceptual framework for the understanding of the existing and emerging strange-metal properties in kagome metals and beyond. ItemProbing Heavy Majorana Neutrinos and the Weinberg Operator through Vector Boson Fusion Processes in Proton-Proton Collisions at √s=13 TeV(American Physical Society, 2023) CMS CollaborationThe first search exploiting the vector boson fusion process to probe heavy Majorana neutrinos and the Weinberg operator at the LHC is presented. The search is performed in the same-sign dimuon final state using a proton-proton collision dataset recorded at √s=13 TeV, collected with the CMS detector and corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 138 fb−1. The results are found to agree with the predictions of the standard model. For heavy Majorana neutrinos, constraints on the squared mixing element between the muon and the heavy neutrino are derived in the heavy neutrino mass range 50 GeV–25 TeV; for masses above 650 GeV these are the most stringent constraints from searches at the LHC to date. A first test of the Weinberg operator at colliders provides an observed upper limit at 95% confidence level on the effective μμ Majorana neutrino mass of 10.8 GeV. ItemSearching for Heavy Dark Matter near the Planck Mass with XENON1T(American Physical Society, 2023) XENON CollaborationMultiple viable theoretical models predict heavy dark matter particles with a mass close to the Planck mass, a range relatively unexplored by current experimental measurements. We use 219.4 days of data collected with the XENON1T experiment to conduct a blind search for signals from multiply interacting massive particles (MIMPs). Their unique track signature allows a targeted analysis with only 0.05 expected background events from muons. Following unblinding, we observe no signal candidate events. This Letter places strong constraints on spin-independent interactions of dark matter particles with a mass between 1×1012 and 2×1017 GeV/c2. In addition, we present the first exclusion limits on spin-dependent MIMP-neutron and MIMP-proton cross sections for dark matter particles with masses close to the Planck scale. ItemIntensity modulated proton arc therapy via geometry-based energy selection for ependymoma(Wiley, 2023) Cao, Wenhua; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Poenisch, Falk; Yepes, Pablo; Sahoo, Narayan; Grosshans, David; McGovern, Susan; Gunn, G. Brandon; Frank, Steven J.; Zhu, Xiaorong R.Purpose We developed and tested a novel method of creating intensity modulated proton arc therapy (IMPAT) plans that uses computing resources similar to those for regular intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans and may offer a dosimetric benefit for patients with ependymoma or similar tumor geometries. Methods Our IMPAT planning method consists of a geometry-based energy selection step with major scanning spot contributions as inputs computed using ray-tracing and single-Gaussian approximation of lateral spot profiles. Based on the geometric relation of scanning spots and dose voxels, our energy selection module selects a minimum set of energy layers at each gantry angle such that each target voxel is covered by sufficient scanning spots as specified by the planner, with dose contributions above the specified threshold. Finally, IMPAT plans are generated by robustly optimizing scanning spots of the selected energy layers using a commercial proton treatment planning system (TPS). The IMPAT plan quality was assessed for four ependymoma patients. Reference three-field IMPT plans were created with similar planning objective functions and compared with the IMPAT plans. Results In all plans, the prescribed dose covered 95% of the clinical target volume (CTV) while maintaining similar maximum doses for the brainstem. While IMPAT and IMPT achieved comparable plan robustness, the IMPAT plans achieved better homogeneity and conformity than the IMPT plans. The IMPAT plans also exhibited higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) enhancement than did the corresponding reference IMPT plans for the CTV in all four patients and brainstem in three of them. Conclusions The proposed method demonstrated potential as an efficient technique for IMPAT planning and may offer a dosimetric benefit for patients with ependymoma or tumors in close proximity to critical organs. IMPAT plans created using this method had elevated RBE enhancement associated with increased linear energy transfer (LET) in both targets and abutting critical organs. ItemKramers nodal lines and Weyl fermions in SmAlSi(Springer Nature, 2023) Zhang, Yichen; Gao, Yuxiang; Gao, Xue-Jian; Lei, Shiming; Ni, Zhuoliang; Oh, Ji Seop; Huang, Jianwei; Yue, Ziqin; Zonno, Marta; Gorovikov, Sergey; Hashimoto, Makoto; Lu, Donghui; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Birgeneau, Robert J.; Kono, Junichiro; Wu, Liang; Law, Kam Tuen; Morosan, Emilia; Yi, MingKramers nodal lines (KNLs) have recently been proposed theoretically as a special type of Weyl line degeneracy connecting time-reversal invariant momenta. KNLs are robust to spin orbit coupling and are inherent to all non-centrosymmetric achiral crystal structures, leading to unusual spin, magneto-electric, and optical properties. However, their existence in in real quantum materials has not been experimentally established. Here we gather the experimental evidence pointing at the presence of KNLs in SmAlSi, a non-centrosymmetric metal that develops incommensurate spin density wave order at low temperature. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, density functional theory calculations, and magneto-transport methods, we provide evidence suggesting the presence of KNLs, together with observing Weyl fermions under the broken inversion symmetry in the paramagnetic phase of SmAlSi. We discuss the nesting possibilities regarding the emergent magnetic orders in SmAlSi. Our results provide a solid basis of experimental observations for exploring correlated topology in SmAlSi ItemThermal disruption of a Luttinger liquid(Springer Nature, 2023) Cavazos-Cavazos, Danyel; Senaratne, Ruwan; Kafle, Aashish; Hulet, Randall G.The Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL) theory describes the low-energy excitations of strongly correlated one-dimensional (1D) fermions. In the past years, a number of studies have provided a detailed understanding of this universality class. More recently, theoretical investigations that go beyond the standard low-temperature, linear-response TLL regime have been developed. While these provide a basis for understanding the dynamics of the spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid, there are few experimental investigations in this regime. Here we report the observation of a thermally induced, spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid in a 6Li atomic Fermi gas confined to 1D. We use Bragg spectroscopy to measure the suppression of spin-charge separation and the decay of correlations as the temperature is increased. Our results probe the crossover between the coherent and incoherent regimes of the Luttinger liquid and elucidate the roles of the charge and the spin degrees of freedom in this regime. ItemCosmological gravitational particle production of massive spin-2 particles(Springer Nature, 2023) Kolb, Edward W.; Ling, Siyang; Long, Andrew J.; Rosen, Rachel A.The phenomenon of cosmological gravitational particle production (CGPP) is expected to occur during the period of inflation and the transition into a hot big bang cosmology. Particles may be produced even if they only couple directly to gravity, and so CGPP provides a natural explanation for the origin of dark matter. In this work we study the gravitational production of massive spin-2 particles assuming two different couplings to matter. We evaluate the full system of mode equations, including the helicity-0 modes, and by solving them numerically we calculate the spectrum and abundance of massive spin-2 particles that results from inflation on a hilltop potential. We conclude that CGPP might provide a viable mechanism for the generation of massive spin-2 particle dark matter during inflation, and we identify the favorable region of parameter space in terms of the spin-2 particle’s mass and the reheating temperature. As a secondary product of our work, we identify the conditions under which such theories admit ghost or gradient instabilities, and we thereby derive a generalization of the Higuchi bound to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetimes. ItemRCM modeling of bubble injections into the inner magnetosphere: geosynchronous orbit and the ionospheric responses(Frontiers Media S.A., 2023) Sadeghzadeh, Sina; Yang, Jian; Toffoletto, Frank; Wolf, Richard; Mousavi, Ameneh; Wang, Chih-PingIntroduction: Accurate characterization of the plasma sheet source population in the ring current region and its outer boundary at geosynchronous orbit is crucial for understanding the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere. The interaction between the ring current and plasma populations from the ionosphere is a focus of extensive research.Methods: We used the Rice Convection Model (RCM) to simulate the transient meso-scale injections of fast flows or plasma sheet bubbles from the outer boundary into the inner magnetosphere and the associated impacts on the ionosphere. We compared our simulation results of the average properties of bulk plasma access to geosynchronous orbit to a number of empirical models. We also examined the role of plasma sheet bubbles in forming field-aligned currents (FACs).Results: Our modeling results show that impulsive plasma sheet injections dramatically alter the average distribution of FACs in the ionosphere. We found both quantitative and qualitative agreements and disagreements when comparing our simulation results to empirical models. Furthermore, we demonstrated that several discrete auroral structures can be identified in the nightside ionosphere in accordance with theupward FACs.Discussion: The significance of plasma sheet bubbles in modifying the averageplasma properties at geosynchronous orbit and FACs in the ionosphere is highlighted by oursimulation findings, offering novel understandings into the dynamics of Earth's magnetosphere,and emphasizing the necessity for further research in this field. ItemTransition from Diffusive to Superdiffusive Transport in Carbon Nanotube Networks via Nematic Order Control(American Chemical Society, 2023) Wais, Michael; Bagsican, Filchito Renee G.; Komatsu, Natsumi; Gao, Weilu; Serita, Kazunori; Murakami, Hironaru; Held, Karsten; Kawayama, Iwao; Kono, Junichiro; Battiato, Marco; Tonouchi, MasayoshiThe one-dimensional confinement of quasiparticles in individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) leads to extremely anisotropic electronic and optical properties. In a macroscopic ensemble of randomly oriented CNTs, this anisotropy disappears together with other properties that make them attractive for certain device applications. The question however remains if not only anisotropy but also other types of behaviors are suppressed by disorder. Here, we compare the dynamics of quasiparticles under strong electric fields in aligned and random CNT networks using a combination of terahertz emission and photocurrent experiments and out-of-equilibrium numerical simulations. We find that the degree of alignment strongly influences the excited quasiparticles’ dynamics, rerouting the thermalization pathways. This is, in particular, evidenced in the high-energy, high-momentum electronic population (probed through the formation of low energy excitons via exciton impact ionization) and the transport regime evolving from diffusive to superdiffusive. ItemMeasurement of the neutron cross section on argon between 95 and 720 MeV(American Physical Society, 2023) CAPTAIN CollaborationWe report an extended measurement of the neutron cross section on argon in the energy range of 95–720 MeV. The measurement was obtained with a 4.3-hour exposure of the Mini-CAPTAIN detector to the WNR/LANSCE beam at LANL. Compared to an earlier analysis of the same data, this extended analysis includes a reassessment of systematic uncertainties, in particular related to unused wires in the upstream part of the detector. Using this information we doubled the fiducial volume in the experiment and increased the statistics by a factor of 2.4. We also shifted the analysis from energy bins to time-of-flight bins. This change reduced the overall considered energy range, but improved the understanding of the energy spectrum of incoming neutrons in each bin. Overall, the new measurements are extracted from a fit to the attenuation of the neutron flux in five time-of-flight regions: 140–180 ns, 120–140 ns, 112–120 ns, 104–112 ns, 96–104 ns. The final cross sections are given for the flux-averaged energy in each time-of-flight bin with statistical and systematic (syst) uncertainties: σ(146 MeV)=0.60+0.14−0.14±0.08(syst) b, σ(236 MeV)=0.72+0.10−0.10±0.04(syst) b, σ(319 MeV)=0.80+0.13−0.12±0.040(syst) b, σ(404 MeV)=0.74+0.14−0.09±0.04(syst) b, σ(543 MeV)=0.74+0.09−0.09±0.04(syst) b. ItemBeam Energy Dependence of Triton Production and Yield Ratio (Nt×Np/N2d) in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC(American Physical Society, 2023) STAR CollaborationWe report the triton (t) production in midrapidity (|y|<0.5) Au+Au collisions at √sNN=7.7–200 GeV measured by the STAR experiment from the first phase of the beam energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The nuclear compound yield ratio (Nt×Np/N2d), which is predicted to be sensitive to the fluctuation of local neutron density, is observed to decrease monotonically with increasing charged-particle multiplicity (dNch/dη) and follows a scaling behavior. The dNch/dη dependence of the yield ratio is compared to calculations from coalescence and thermal models. Enhancements in the yield ratios relative to the coalescence baseline are observed in the 0%-10% most central collisions at 19.6 and 27 GeV, with a significance of 2.3σ and 3.4σ, respectively, giving a combined significance of 4.1σ. The enhancements are not observed in peripheral collisions or model calculations without critical fluctuation, and decreases with a smaller pT acceptance. The physics implications of these results on the QCD phase structure and the production mechanism of light nuclei in heavy-ion collisions are discussed. ItemMapping Protoplanetary Disk Vertical Structure with CO Isotopologue Line Emission(IOP Publishing, 2023) Law, Charles J.; Teague, Richard; Öberg, Karin I.; Rich, Evan A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Bae, Jaehan; Benisty, Myriam; Facchini, Stefano; Flaherty, Kevin; Isella, Andrea; Jin, Sheng; Hashimoto, Jun; Huang, Jane; Loomis, Ryan A.; Long, Feng; Muñoz-Romero, Carlos E.; Paneque-Carreño, Teresa; Pérez, Laura M.; Qi, Chunhua; Schwarz, Kamber R.; Stadler, Jochen; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Wilner, David J.; Plas, Gerrit van derHigh-spatial-resolution observations of CO isotopologue line emission in protoplanetary disks at mid-inclinations (≈30°–75°) allow us to characterize the gas structure in detail, including radial and vertical substructures, emission surface heights and their dependencies on source characteristics, and disk temperature profiles. By combining observations of a suite of CO isotopologues, we can map the two-dimensional (r, z) disk structure from the disk upper atmosphere, as traced by CO, to near the midplane, as probed by less abundant isotopologues. Here, we present high-angular-resolution (≲0.″1 to ≈0.″2; ≈15–30 au) observations of CO, 13CO, and C18O in either or both J = 2–1 and J = 3–2 lines in the transition disks around DM Tau, Sz 91, LkCa 15, and HD 34282. We derived line emission surfaces in CO for all disks and in 13CO for the DM Tau and LkCa 15 disks. With these observations, we do not resolve the vertical structure of C18O in any disk, which is instead consistent with C18O emission originating from the midplane. Both the J = 2–1 and J = 3–2 lines show similar heights. Using the derived emission surfaces, we computed radial and vertical gas temperature distributions for each disk, including empirical temperature models for the DM Tau and LkCa 15 disks. After combining our sample with literature sources, we find that 13CO line emitting heights are also tentatively linked with source characteristics, e.g., stellar host mass, gas temperature, disk size, and show steeper trends than seen in CO emission surfaces. ItemTest beam performance of a CBC3-based mini-module for the Phase-2 CMS Outer Tracker before and after neutron irradiation(IOP Publishing, 2023) The Tracker Group of the CMSThe Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will undergo major upgrades to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to 5–7.5×1034 cm-2s-1. This High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) will deliver a total of 3000–4000 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13–14 TeV. To cope with these challenging environmental conditions, the strip tracker of the CMS experiment will be upgraded using modules with two closely-spaced silicon sensors to provide information to include tracking in the Level-1 trigger selection. This paper describes the performance, in a test beam experiment, of the first prototype module based on the final version of the CMS Binary Chip front-end ASIC before and after the module was irradiated with neutrons. Results demonstrate that the prototype module satisfies the requirements, providing efficient tracking information, after being irradiated with a total fluence comparable to the one expected through the lifetime of the experiment. ItemTemporal, Spatial, and Velocity-Space Variations of Electron Phase Space Density Measurements at the Magnetopause(Wiley, 2023) Shuster, J. R.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Bessho, N.; Sharma, A. S.; Dorelli, J. C.; Uritsky, V.; Schwartz, S. J.; Cassak, P. A.; Denton, R. E.; Chen, L.-J.; Gurram, H.; Ng, J.; Burch, J.; Webster, J.; Torbert, R.; Paterson, W. R.; Schiff, C.; Viñas, A. F.; Avanov, L. A.; Stawarz, J.; Li, T. C.; Liu, Y.-H.; Argall, M. R.; Afshari, A.; Payne, D. S.; Farrugia, C. J.; Verniero, J.; Wilder, F.; Genestreti, K.; da Silva, D. E.Temporal, spatial, and velocity-space variations of electron phase space density are measured observationally and compared for the first time using the four magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) spacecraft at Earth's magnetopause. Equipped with these unprecedented spatiotemporal measurements offered by the MMS tetrahedron, we compute each term of the electron Vlasov equation that governs the evolution of collisionless plasmas found throughout the universe. We demonstrate how to use single spacecraft measurements to improve the resolution of the electron pressure gradient that supports nonideal parallel electric fields, and we develop a model to intuit the types of kinetic velocity-space signatures that are observed in the Vlasov equation terms. Furthermore, we discuss how the gradient in velocity-space sheds light on plasma energy conversion mechanisms and wave-particle interactions that occur in fundamental physical processes such as magnetic reconnection and turbulence. ItemState Preparation of Antisymmetrized Geminal Power on a Quantum Computer without Number Projection(American Chemical Society, 2023) Khamoshi, Armin; Dutta, Rishab; Scuseria, Gustavo E.The antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) is equivalent to the number projected Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (PBCS) wave function. It is also an elementary symmetric polynomial (ESP) state. We generalize previous research on deterministically implementing the Dicke state to a state preparation algorithm for an ESP state, or equivalently AGP, on a quantum computer. Our method is deterministic and has polynomial cost, and it does not rely on number symmetry breaking and restoration. We also show that our circuit is equivalent to a disentangled unitary paired coupled cluster operator and a layer of unitary Jastrow operator acting on a single Slater determinant. The method presented herein highlights the ability of disentangled unitary coupled cluster to capture nontrivial entanglement properties that are hardly accessible with traditional Hartree–Fock based electronic structure methods. ItemTheoretical understanding of evolutionary dynamics on inhomogeneous networks(IOP Publishing, 2023) Teimouri, Hamid; Khavas, Dorsa Sattari; Spaulding, Cade; Li, Christopher; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Center for Theoretical Biological PhysicsEvolution is the main feature of all biological systems that allows populations to change their characteristics over successive generations. A powerful approach to understand evolutionary dynamics is to investigate fixation probabilities and fixation times of novel mutations on networks that mimic biological populations. It is now well established that the structure of such networks can have dramatic effects on evolutionary dynamics. In particular, there are population structures that might amplify the fixation probabilities while simultaneously delaying the fixation events. However, the microscopic origins of such complex evolutionary dynamics remain not well understood. We present here a theoretical investigation of the microscopic mechanisms of mutation fixation processes on inhomogeneous networks. It views evolutionary dynamics as a set of stochastic transitions between discrete states specified by different numbers of mutated cells. By specifically considering star networks, we obtain a comprehensive description of evolutionary dynamics. Our approach allows us to employ physics-inspired free-energy landscape arguments to explain the observed trends in fixation times and fixation probabilities, providing a better microscopic understanding of evolutionary dynamics in complex systems. ItemNucleosome Breathing Facilitates the Search for Hidden DNA Sites by Pioneer Transcription Factors(American Chemical Society, 2023) Mondal, Anupam; Felipe, Cayke; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Center for Theoretical Biological PhysicsTransfer of genetic information starts with transcription factors (TFs) binding to specific sites on DNA. But in living cells, DNA is mostly covered by nucleosomes. There are proteins, known as pioneer TFs, that can efficiently reach the DNA sites hidden by nucleosomes, although the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Using the recently proposed idea of interaction-compensation mechanism, we develop a stochastic model for the target search on DNA with nucleosome breathing. It is found that nucleosome breathing can significantly accelerate the search by pioneer TFs in comparison to situations without breathing. We argue that this is the result of the interaction-compensation mechanism that allows proteins to enter the inner nucleosome region through the outer DNA segment. It is suggested that nature optimized pioneer TFs to take advantage of nucleosome breathing. The presented theoretical picture provides a possible microscopic explanation for the successful invasion of nucleosome-buried genes. ItemPhonon-Assisted Intertube Electronic Transport in an Armchair Carbon Nanotube Film(American Physical Society, 2023) Adinehloo, Davoud; Gao, Weilu; Mojibpour, Ali; Kono, Junichiro; Perebeinos, Vasili; The Smalley-Curl InstituteThe electrical conductivity of a macroscopic assembly of nanomaterials is determined through a complex interplay of electronic transport within and between constituent nano-objects. Phonons play dual roles in this situation: their increased populations tend to reduce the conductivity via electron scattering, while they can boost the conductivity by assisting electrons to propagate through the potential-energy landscape. We identified a phonon-assisted coherent electron transport process between neighboring nanotubes in temperature-dependent conductivity measurements on a macroscopic film of armchair single-wall carbon nanotubes. Through atomistic modeling of electronic states and calculations of both electronic and phonon-assisted junction conductances, we conclude that phonon-assisted conductance is the dominant mechanism for observed high-temperature transport in armchair carbon nanotubes. The unambiguous manifestation of coherent intertube dynamics proves a single-chirality armchair nanotube film to be a unique macroscopic solid-state ensemble of nano-objects promising for the development of room-temperature coherent electronic devices. ItemRobust formulation of Wick’s theorem for computing matrix elements between Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov wavefunctions(AIP Publishing, 2023) Chen, Guo P.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Numerical difficulties associated with computing matrix elements of operators between Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) wavefunctions have plagued the development of HFB-based many-body theories for decades. The problem arises from divisions by zero in the standard formulation of the nonorthogonal Wick’s theorem in the limit of vanishing HFB overlap. In this Communication, we present a robust formulation of Wick’s theorem that stays well-behaved regardless of whether the HFB states are orthogonal or not. This new formulation ensures cancellation between the zeros of the overlap and the poles of the Pfaffian, which appears naturally in fermionic systems. Our formula explicitly eliminates self-interaction, which otherwise causes additional numerical challenges. A computationally efficient version of our formalism enables robust symmetry-projected HFB calculations with the same computational cost as mean-field theories. Moreover, we avoid potentially diverging normalization factors by introducing a robust normalization procedure. The resulting formalism treats even and odd number of particles on equal footing and reduces to Hartree–Fock as a natural limit. As proof of concept, we present a numerically stable and accurate solution to a Jordan–Wigner-transformed Hamiltonian, whose singularities motivated the present work. Our robust formulation of Wick’s theorem is a most promising development for methods using quasiparticle vacuum states. ItemBacteria-Specific Feature Selection for Enhanced Antimicrobial Peptide Activity Predictions Using Machine-Learning Methods(American Chemical Society, 2023) Teimouri, Hamid; Medvedeva, Angela; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Center for Theoretical Biological PhysicsThere are several classes of short peptide molecules, known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are produced during the immune responses of living organisms against various infections. In recent years, substantial progress has been achieved in applying machine-learning methods to predict the activities of AMPs against bacteria. In most investigated cases, however, the outcome is not bacterium-specific since the specific features of bacteria, such as chemical composition and structure of membranes, are not considered. To overcome this problem, we developed a new computational approach that allowed us to train several supervised machine-learning models using a specific set of data associated with peptides targeting E. coli bacteria. LASSO regression and Support Vector Machine techniques have been utilized to select, among more than 1500 physicochemical descriptors, the most important features that can be used to classify a peptide as antimicrobial or ineffective against E. coli. We then performed the classification of active versus inactive AMPs using the Support Vector classifiers, Logistic Regression, and Random Forest methods. This computational study allows us to make recommendations of how to design more efficient antibacterial drug therapies.