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Item Blind test of density-functional-based methods on intermolecular interaction energies(AIP Publishing LLC., 2016) Taylor, DeCarlos E.; Ángyán, János G.; Galli, Giulia; Zhang, Cui; Gygi, Francois; Hirao, Kimihiko; Song, Jong Won; Rahul, Kar; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Podeszwa, Rafał; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Toulouse, Julien; PShow more In the past decade, a number of approaches have been developed to fix the failure of (semi)local density-functional theory (DFT) in describing intermolecular interactions. The performance of several such approaches with respect to highly accurate benchmarks is compared here on a set of separation-dependent interaction energies for ten dimers. Since the benchmarks were unknown before the DFT-based results were collected, this comparison constitutes a blind test of these methods.Show more Item Communication: Projected Hartree Fock theory as a polynomial similarity transformation theory of single excitations(AIP Publishing LLC., 2016) Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more Spin-projected Hartree-Fock is written as a particle-hole excitation ansatz over a symmetry-adapted reference determinant. Remarkably, this expansion has an analytic expression that we were able to decipher. While the form of the polynomial expansion is universal, the excitation amplitudes need to be optimized. This is equivalent to the optimization of orbitals in the conventional projected Hartree-Fock framework of non-orthogonal determinants. Using the inverse of the particle-hole expansion, we similarity transform the Hamiltonian in a coupled-cluster style theory. The left eigenvector of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian is constructed in a similar particle-hole expansion fashion, and we show that to numerically reproduce variational projected Hartree-Fock results, one needs as many pair excitations in the bra as the number of strongly correlated entangled pairs in the system. This single-excitation polynomial similarity transformation theory is an alternative to our recently presented double excitation theory, but supports projected Hartree-Fock and coupled cluster simultaneously rather than interpolating between them.Show more Item Correlating the antisymmetrized geminal power wave function(AIP, 2020) Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more Strong pairing correlations are responsible for superconductivity and off-diagonal long-range order in the two-particle density matrix. The antisymmetrized geminal power wave function was championed many years ago as the simplest model that can provide a reasonable qualitative description for these correlations without breaking number symmetry. The fact remains, however, that the antisymmetrized geminal power is not generally quantitatively accurate in all correlation regimes. In this work, we discuss how we might use this wave function as a reference state for a more sophisticated correlation technique such as configuration interaction, coupled cluster theory, or the random phase approximation.Show more Item Coupled cluster channels in the homogeneous electron gas(AIP Publishing, 2014) Shepherd, James J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more We discuss diagrammatic modifications to the coupled cluster doubles (CCD) equations, wherein different groups of terms out of rings, ladders, crossed-rings, and mosaics can be removed to form approximations to the coupled cluster method, of interest due to their similarity with various types of random phase approximations. The finite uniform electron gas (UEG) is benchmarked for 14- and 54-electron systems at the complete basis set limit over a wide density range and performance of different flavours of CCD is determined. These results confirm that rings generally overcorrelate and ladders generally undercorrelate; mosaics-only CCD yields a result surprisingly close to CCD. We use a recently developed numerical analysis [J. J. Shepherd and A. Grüneis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 226401 (2013)] to study the behaviours of these methods in the thermodynamic limit. We determine that the mosaics, on forming the Brueckner one-body Hamiltonian, open a gap in the effective one-particle eigenvalues at the Fermi energy. Numerical evidence is presented which shows that methods based on this renormalisation have convergent energies in the thermodynamic limit including mosaic-only CCD, which is just a renormalised MP2. All other methods including only a single channel, namely, ladder-only CCD, ring-only CCD, and crossed-ring-only CCD, appear to yield divergent energies; incorporation of mosaic terms prevents this from happening.Show more Item Hartree–Fock symmetry breaking around conical intersections(AIP Publishing, 2018) Jake, Lena C.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more We study the behavior of Hartree-Fock (HF) solutions in the vicinity of conical intersections. These are here understood as regions of a molecular potential energy surface characterized by degenerate or nearly degenerate eigenfunctions with identical quantum numbers (point group, spin, and electron numbers). Accidental degeneracies between states with different quantum numbers are known to induce symmetry breaking in HF. The most common closed-shell restricted HF instability is related to singlet-triplet spin degeneracies that lead to collinear unrestricted HF solutions. Adding geometric frustration to the mix usually results in noncollinear generalized HF (GHF) solutions, identified by orbitals that are linear combinations of up and down spins. Near conical intersections, we observe the appearance of coplanar GHF solutions that break all symmetries, including complex conjugation and time-reversal, which do not carry good quantum numbers. We discuss several prototypical examples taken from the conical intersection literature. Additionally, we utilize a recently introduced magnetization diagnostic to characterize these solutions, as well as a solution of a Jahn-Teller active geometry of H8+2.Show more Item Lie algebraic similarity transformed Hamiltonians for lattice model systems(American Physical Society, 2015) Wahlen-Strothman, Jacob M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more We present a class of Lie algebraic similarity transformations generated by exponentials of two-body on-site Hermitian operators whose Hausdorff series can be summed exactly without truncation. The correlators are defined over the entire lattice and include the Gutzwiller factor ni↑ni↓, and two-site products of density (ni↑+ni↓) and spin (ni↑−ni↓) operators. The resulting non-Hermitian many-body Hamiltonian can be solved in a biorthogonal mean-field approach with polynomial computational cost. The proposed similarity transformation generates locally weighted orbital transformations of the reference determinant. Although the energy of the model is unbound, projective equations in the spirit of coupled cluster theory lead to well-defined solutions. The theory is tested on the one- and two-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model where it yields accurate results for small and medium sized interaction strengths.Show more Item Linearized Jastrow-style fluctuations on spin-projected Hartree-Fock(American Institute of Physics, 2013) Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more The accurate and efficient description of strong electronic correlations remains an important objective in electronic structure theory. Projected Hartree-Fock theory, where symmetries of the Hamiltonian are deliberately broken and projectively restored, all with a mean-field computational scaling, shows considerable promise in this regard. However, the method is neither size extensive nor size consistent; in other words, the correlation energy per particle beyond broken-symmetry mean field vanishes in the thermodynamic limit, and the dissociation limit of a molecule is not the sum of the fragment energies. These two problems are closely related. Recently, Neuscamman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203001 (2012)] has proposed a method to cure the lack of size consistency in the context of the antisymmetrized geminal power wave function (equivalent to number-projected Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov) by using a Jastrow-type correlator in Hilbert space. Here, we apply the basic idea in the context of projected Hartree-Fock theory, linearizing the correlator for computational simplicity but extending it to include spin fluctuations. Results are presented for the Hubbard Hamiltonian and for some simple molecular systems.Show more Item Pair extended coupled cluster doubles(AIP Publishing LLC., 2015) Henderson, Thomas M.; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more The accurate and efficient description of strongly correlated systems remains an important challenge for computational methods. Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI), in which all electrons are paired and no correlations which break these pairs are permitted, can in many cases provide an accurate account of strong correlations, albeit at combinatorial computational cost. Recently, there has been significant interest in a method we refer to as pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD), a variant of coupled cluster doubles in which the electrons are paired. This is simply because pCCD provides energies nearly identical to those of DOCI, but at mean-field computational cost (disregarding the cost of the two-electron integral transformation). Here, we introduce the more complete pair extended coupled cluster doubles (pECCD) approach which, like pCCD, has mean-field cost and reproduces DOCI energetically. We show that unlike pCCD, pECCD also reproduces the DOCI wave function with high accuracy. Moreover, pECCD yields sensible albeit inexact results even for attractive interactions where pCCD breaks down.Show more Item Particle-particle and quasiparticle random phase approximations: Connections to coupled cluster theory(American Institute of Physics, 2013) Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Bulik, Ireneusz W.Show more We establish a formal connection between the particle-particle (pp) random phase approximation (RPA) and the ladder channel of the coupled cluster doubles (CCD) equations. The relationship between RPA and CCD is best understood within a Bogoliubov quasiparticle (qp) RPA formalism. This work is a follow-up to our previous formal proof on the connection between particle-hole (ph) RPA and ring-CCD. Whereas RPA is a quasibosonic approximation, CC theory is a “correct bosonization” in the sense that the wavefunction and Hilbert space are exactly fermionic, yet the amplitude equations can be interpreted as adding different quasibosonic RPA channels together. Coupled cluster theory achieves this goal by interacting the ph (ring) and pp (ladder) diagrams via a third channel that we here call “crossed-ring” whose presence allows for full fermionic antisymmetry. Additionally, coupled cluster incorporates what we call “mosaic” terms which can be absorbed into defining a new effective one-body Hamiltonian. The inclusion of these mosaic terms seems to be quite important. The pp-RPA and qp-RPA equations are textbook material in nuclear structure physics but are largely unknown in quantum chemistry, where particle number fluctuations and Bogoliubov determinants are rarely used. We believe that the ideas and connections discussed in this paper may help design improved ways of incorporating RPA correlation into density functionals based on a CC perspective.Show more Item Polynomial similarity transformation theory: A smooth interpolation between coupled cluster doubles and projected BCS applied to the reduced BCS Hamiltonian(American Physical Society, 2016) Degroote, Matthias; Henderson, Thomas M.; Zhao, Jinmo; Dukelsky, Jorge; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more We present a similarity transformation theory based on a polynomial form of a particle-hole pair excitation operator. In the weakly correlated limit, this polynomial becomes an exponential, leading to coupled cluster doubles. In the opposite strongly correlated limit, the polynomial becomes an extended Bessel expansion and yields the projected BCS wave function. In between, we interpolate using a single parameter. The effective Hamiltonian is non-Hermitian and this polynomial similarity transformation theory follows the philosophy of traditional coupled cluster, left projecting the transformed Hamiltonian onto subspaces of the Hilbert space in which the wave function variance is forced to be zero. Similarly, the interpolation parameter is obtained through minimizing the next residual in the projective hierarchy. We rationalize and demonstrate how and why coupled cluster doubles is ill suited to the strongly correlated limit, whereas the Bessel expansion remains well behaved. The model provides accurate wave functions with energy errors that in its best variant are smaller than 1% across all interaction strengths. The numerical cost is polynomial in system size and the theory can be straightforwardly applied to any realistic Hamiltonian.Show more Item Projected coupled cluster theory(AIP Publishing, 2017) Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M.; Zhao, Jinmo; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more Coupled cluster theory is the method of choice for weakly correlated systems. But in the strongly correlated regime, it faces a symmetry dilemma, where it either completely fails to describe the system or has to artificially break certain symmetries. On the other hand, projected Hartree-Fock theory captures the essential physics of many kinds of strong correlations via symmetry breaking and restoration. In this work, we combine and try to retain the merits of these two methods by applying symmetry projection to broken symmetry coupled cluster wave functions. The non-orthogonal nature of states resulting from the application of symmetry projection operators furnishes particle-hole excitations to all orders, thus creating an obstacle for the exact evaluation of overlaps. Here we provide a solution via a disentanglement framework theory that can be approximated rigorously and systematically. Results of projected coupled cluster theory are presented for molecules and the Hubbard model, showing that spin projection significantly improves unrestricted coupled cluster theory while restoring good quantum numbers. The energy of projected coupled cluster theory reduces to the unprojected one in the thermodynamic limit, albeit at a much slower rate than projected Hartree-Fock.Show more Item Projected coupled cluster theory: Optimization of cluster amplitudes in the presence of symmetry projection(AIP Publishing, 2018) Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M.; Zhao, Jinmo; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more Methods which aim at universal applicability must be able to describe both weak and strong electronic correlation with equal facility. Such methods are in short supply. The combination of symmetry projection for strong correlation and coupled cluster theory for weak correlation offers tantalizing promise to account for both on an equal footing. In order to do so, however, the coupled cluster portion of the wave function must be optimized in the presence of the symmetry projection. This paper discusses how this may be accomplished, and shows the importance of doing so for both the Hubbard model Hamiltonian and the molecular Hamiltonian, all with a computational scaling comparable to that of traditional coupled cluster theory.Show more Item Projected Hartree-Fock theory as a polynomial of particle-hole excitations and its combination with variational coupled cluster theory(AIP Publishing, 2017) Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more Projected Hartree-Fockﾠtheoryﾠprovides an accurate description of many kinds of strong correlations but does not properly describe weakly correlated systems.ﾠCoupled clusterﾠtheory,ﾠin contrast, does the opposite. It therefore seems natural to combine the two so as to describe both strong and weak correlations with high accuracy in a relatively black-box manner. Combining the two approaches, however, is made more difficult by the fact that the two techniques are formulated very differently. In earlier work, we showed how to write spin-projected Hartree-Fock in a coupled-cluster-like language. Here, we fill in the gaps in that earlier work. Further, we combine projected Hartree-Fock andﾠcoupled clusterﾠtheoryﾠin a variational formulation and show how the combination performs for the description of the Hubbard Hamiltonian and for several small molecular systems.Show more Item Projected Hartree–Fock theory(AIP Publishing LLC, 2012) Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more Projected Hartree–Fock (PHF) theory has a long history in quantum chemistry. PHF is here understood as the variational determination of an N-electron broken symmetry Slater determinant that minimizes the energy of a projected state with the correct quantum numbers. The method was actively pursued for several decades but seems to have been abandoned. We here derive and implement a “variation after projection” PHF theory using techniques different from those previously employed in quantum chemistry. Our PHF methodology has modest mean-field computational cost, yields relatively simple expressions, can be applied to both collinear and non-collinear spin cases, and can be used in conjunction with deliberate symmetry breaking and restoration of other molecular symmetries like complex conjugation and point group. We present several benchmark applications to dissociation curves and singlet-triplet energy splittings, showing that the resulting PHF wavefunctions are of high quality multireference character. We also provide numerical evidence that in the thermodynamic limit, the energy in PHF is not lower than that of broken-symmetry HF, a simple consequence of the lack of size consistency and extensivity of PHF.Show more Item Proper and improper zero energy modes in Hartree-Fock theory and their relevance for symmetry breaking and restoration(American Institute of Physics, 2013) Cui, Yao; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more We study the spectra of the molecular orbital Hessian (stability matrix) and random-phase approximation (RPA) Hamiltonian of broken-symmetry Hartree-Fock solutions, focusing on zero eigenvalue modes. After all negative eigenvalues are removed from the Hessian by following their eigenvectors downhill, one is left with only positive and zero eigenvalues. Zero modes correspond to orbital rotations with no restoring force. These rotations determine states in the Goldstone manifold, which originates from a spontaneously broken continuous symmetry in the wave function. Zero modes can be classified as improper or proper according to their different mathematical and physical properties. Improper modes arise from symmetry breaking and their restoration always lowers the energy. Proper modes, on the other hand, correspond to degeneracies of the wave function, and their symmetry restoration does not necessarily lower the energy. We discuss how the RPA Hamiltonian distinguishes between proper and improper modes by doubling the number of zero eigenvalues associated with the latter. Proper modes in the Hessian always appear in pairs which do not double in RPA. We present several pedagogical cases exemplifying the above statements. The relevance of these results for projected Hartree-Fock methods is also addressed.Show more Item Quasiparticle coupled cluster theory for pairing interactions(American Physical Society, 2014) Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Dukelsky, Jorge; Signoracci, Angelo; Duguet, ThomasShow more We present an extension of the pair coupled cluster doubles (p-CCD) method to quasiparticles and apply it to the attractive pairing Hamiltonian. Near the transition point where number symmetry gets spontaneously broken, the proposed BCS-based p-CCD method yields significantly better energies than existing methods when compared to exact results obtained via solution of the Richardson equations. The quasiparticle p-CCD method has a low computational cost of O(N3) as a function of system size. This together with the high quality of results here demonstrated, points to considerable promise for the accurate description of strongly correlated systems with more realistic pairing interactions.Show more Item Range-Separated Brueckner Coupled Cluster Doubles Theory(American Physical Society, 2014) Shepherd, James J.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more We introduce a range-separation approximation to coupled cluster doubles (CCD) theory that successfully overcomes limitations of regular CCD when applied to the uniform electron gas. We combine the short-range ladder channel with the long-range ring channel in the presence of a Bruckner renormalized one-body interaction and obtain ground-state energies with an accuracy of 0.001 a.u./electron across a wide range of density regimes. Our scheme is particularly useful in the low-density and strongly correlated regimes, where regular CCD has serious drawbacks. Moreover, we cure the infamous overcorrelation of approaches based on ring diagrams (i.e., the particle-hole random phase approximation). Our energies are further shown to have appropriate basis set and thermodynamic limit convergence, and overall this scheme promises energetic properties for realistic periodic and extended systems which existing methods do not possess.Show more Item Recoupling the singlet- and triplet-pairing channels in single-reference coupled cluster theory(AIP Publishing LLC., 2016) Gomez, John A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more It is well known that single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to low orders of excitations gives the right answer for the right reason when systems are dominated by dynamical or weak correlation. Static or strong correlation is more problematic, causing often catastrophic breakdown of restricted coupled cluster. This failure can be remedied, e.g., by allowing symmetry breaking in the reference or taking a multi-reference approach, but poses an interesting theoretical problem, especially since many groups have found that simplifying the T2 operator or the doubles amplitude equations gives better results. In singlet-paired coupled cluster, eliminating the triplet-pairing channel recovers reasonable qualitative behavior for strong correlation at the cost of a decreased description of dynamical correlation in weakly correlated situations. This behavior seems to hold for both closed- and open-shell systems. In this work, we explore the coupling of the singlet- and triplet-pairing channels of T2 and attempt to recouple them in order to recover dynamical correlation without reintroducing catastrophic failure due to strong correlation. In the weakly correlated regime, these pairing channels are only weakly coupled, and a simple recoupling gives good results. However, as strong correlation dominates, the coupling strength between the singlet- and triplet-pairing channels increases, making it difficult to perturbatively recouple the singlet- and triplet-pairing channels in this regime.Show more Item Seniority zero pair coupled cluster doubles theory(AIP Publishing, 2014) Stein, Tamar; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more Coupled clusterﾠtheoryﾠwith single and doubleﾠexcitationsﾠaccurately describes weak electronﾠcorrelationﾠbut is known to fail in cases of strong staticﾠcorrelation.ﾠFascinatingly, however, pairﾠcoupled clusterﾠdoubles (p-CCD), a simplified version of theﾠtheoryﾠlimited to pairﾠexcitationsﾠthat preserve the seniority of the reference determinant (i.e.,ﾠthe number of unpaired electrons), hasﾠmean fieldﾠcomputational cost and is an excellent approximation to the full configuration interaction (FCI) of the paired space provided that the orbital basis defining the pairing scheme is adequately optimized. In previous work, we have shown that optimization of the pairing scheme in the seniority zero FCI leads to a very accurate description of staticﾠcorrelation.ﾠThe same conclusion extends to p-CCD if the orbitals are optimized to make the p-CCD energy stationary. We here demonstrate these results with numerous examples. We also explore the contributions of different seniority sectors to theﾠcoupled clusterﾠdoublesﾠ(CCD)ﾠcorrelationﾠenergy using different orbital bases. We consider both Hartree-Fock and Brueckner orbitals, and the role of orbital localization. We show how one can pair the orbitals so that the role of the Brueckner orbitals at theﾠCCDﾠlevel is retained at the p-CCD level. Moreover, we explore ways of extendingﾠCCDﾠto accurately describe strongly correlated systems.Show more Item Seniority-based coupled cluster theory(AIP Publishing, 2014) Henderson, Thomas M.; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Stein, Tamar; Scuseria, Gustavo E.Show more Doubly occupied configuration interaction (DOCI) with optimized orbitals often accurately describes strong correlations while working in a Hilbert space much smaller than that needed for full configuration interaction. However, the scaling of such calculations remains combinatorial with system size. Pair coupled cluster doubles (pCCD) is very successful in reproducing DOCI energetically, but can do so with low polynomial scaling (N3, disregarding the two-electron integral transformation from atomic to molecular orbitals). We show here several examples illustrating the success of pCCD in reproducing both the DOCI energy and wave function and show how this success frequently comes about. What DOCI and pCCD lack are an effective treatment of dynamic correlations, which we here add by including higher-seniority cluster amplitudes which are excluded from pCCD. This frozen pair coupled cluster approach is comparable in cost to traditional closed-shell coupled cluster methods with results that are competitive for weakly correlated systems and often superior for the description of strongly correlated systems.Show more